Alfred Walter Bayes – Biography

Ever heard about Alfred Walter Bayes, also known as A. W. Bayes? Painter and illustrator, who was born in 1831 and died in 1909?

I am working on another interesting project right now and I was searching the web for public domain illustrations of Andersen’s fairy tales. They are many available but most of them are in black and white. Then I managed to get the scan of Andersen’s Stories of the Household, published by George Routledge and Sons, Glasgow and New York in 1889.

It is illustrated with two hundred and ninety illustrations by Alfred Walter Bayes and these were engraved by legendary brothers George and Edward Dalziel. The book is beautiful and some of illustrations are in color!

 

  • Cover for Hans Christian Andersen's, "Stories For the Household," 1889 Illustrations by Alfred Walter Bayes' From a Gallery at Katrinahaney.com

    Cover for Hans Christian Andersen's, "Stories For the Household," 1889 Illustrations by Alfred Walter Bayes' From a Gallery at Katrinahaney.com

  • Hans Christian Andersen, "The Steadfast Tin Soldier" Color Illustration by Alfred Walter Bayes,

    Hans Christian Andersen, "The Steadfast Tin Soldier" Color Illustration by Alfred Walter Bayes, "Stories For the Household," 1889, digitally enhanced by Katrina Haney. From a Gallery at Katrinahaney.com

  • Hans Christian Andersen, "Little Claus and Big Claus" Color Illustration by Alfred Walter Bayes, "Stories For the Household," 1889, digitally enhanced by Katrina Haney. From a Gallery at Katrinahaney.com

    Hans Christian Andersen, "Little Claus and Big Claus" Color Illustration by Alfred Walter Bayes, "Stories For the Household," 1889, digitally enhanced by Katrina Haney. From a Gallery at Katrinahaney.com

  • Hans Christian Andersen, "The Ugly Duckling" Color Illustration by Alfred Walter Bayes, "Stories For the Household," 1889, digitally enhanced by Katrina Haney. From a Gallery at Katrinahaney.com

    Hans Christian Andersen, "The Ugly Duckling" Color Illustration by Alfred Walter Bayes, "Stories For the Household," 1889, digitally enhanced by Katrina Haney. From a Gallery at Katrinahaney.com

  • Hans Christian Andersen, "The Psyche" Color Illustration by Alfred Walter Bayes, "Stories For the Household," 1889, digitally enhanced by Katrina Haney. From a Gallery at Katrinahaney.com

    Hans Christian Andersen, "The Psyche" Color Illustration by Alfred Walter Bayes, "Stories For the Household," 1889, digitally enhanced by Katrina Haney. From a Gallery at Katrinahaney.com

  • Hans Christian Andersen, "The Story of My Life" Color Illustration by Alfred Walter Bayes, "Stories For the Household," 1889, Digitally enhanced by Katrina Haney. From a Gallery at Katrinahaney.com

    Hans Christian Andersen, "The Story of My Life" Color Illustration by Alfred Walter Bayes, "Stories For the Household," 1889, Digitally enhanced by Katrina Haney. From a Gallery at Katrinahaney.com

  • Hans Christian Andersen, "Little Claus and Big Claus" Color Illustration by Alfred Walter Bayes, "Stories For the Household," 1889, digitally enhanced by Katrina Haney. From a Gallery at Katrinahaney.com

    Hans Christian Andersen, "The Marsh King's Daughter" Color Illustration by Alfred Walter Bayes, "Stories For the Household," 1889, digitally enhanced by Katrina Haney. From a Gallery at Katrinahaney.com

  • Hans Christian Andersen, "The Ice Maiden" Color Illustration by Alfred Walter Bayes, "Stories For the Household," 1889, digitally enhanced by Katrina Haney. From a Gallery at Katrinahaney.com

    Hans Christian Andersen, "The Ice Maiden" Color Illustration by Alfred Walter Bayes, "Stories For the Household," 1889, digitally enhanced by Katrina Haney. From a Gallery at Katrinahaney.com

  • Hans Christian Andersen, "Under the Willow Tree" Color Illustration by Alfred Walter Bayes, "Stories For the Household," 1889, digitally enhanced by Katrina Haney. From a Gallery at Katrinahaney.com

    Hans Christian Andersen, "Under the Willow Tree" Color Illustration by Alfred Walter Bayes, "Stories For the Household," 1889, digitally enhanced by Katrina Haney. From a Gallery at Katrinahaney.com

  • Hans Christian Andersen, "The Swineherd" Color Illustration by Alfred Walter Bayes, "Stories For the Household," 1889, digitally enhanced by Katrina Haney. From a Gallery at Katrinahaney.com

    Hans Christian Andersen, "The Swineherd" Color Illustration by Alfred Walter Bayes, "Stories For the Household," 1889, digitally enhanced by Katrina Haney. From a Gallery at Katrinahaney.com

  • Hans Christian Andersen, "What the Moon Saw" Color Illustration by Alfred Walter Bayes, "Stories For the Household," 1889, digitally enhanced by Katrina Haney. From a Gallery at Katrinahaney.com

    Hans Christian Andersen, "What the Moon Saw" Color Illustration by Alfred Walter Bayes, "Stories For the Household," 1889, digitally enhanced by Katrina Haney. From a Gallery at Katrinahaney.com

  • Hans Christian Andersen, "The Snow Queen" Color Illustration by Alfred Walter Bayes, "Stories For the Household," 1889, digitally enhanced by Katrina Haney. From a Gallery at Katrinahaney.com

    Hans Christian Andersen, "The Snow Queen" Color Illustration by Alfred Walter Bayes, "Stories For the Household," 1889, digitally enhanced by Katrina Haney. From a Gallery at Katrinahaney.com

 

 

Hans Christian Anderson Fairy Tales – Jean Hersholt, Translator

Jean Hersholt (1886-1956) was a Danish actor who emigrated to the United States, making himself a career in Hollywood as from 1913. He was an avid collector of Andersen editions, and among other things he translated Hans Christian Andersen’s fairy tales and stories in the excellent edition The Complete Andersen (six volumes, New York 1949. Further information) – which you may now read on this web site.

By several people, Hersholt’s Andersen-translation for the English languaged world is rated as the standard translation, being one of the best.

Hersholt felt deeply connected to Andersen’s world and has approached the matter rather originally. As appears from the bibliographies on the Hans Christian Andersen literature, Hersholt wrote several articles on Andersen and he also edited The Andersen-Scudder-Letters in 1948.

The Complete Andersen includes first prints (they had never been printed in Danish, either) of no less than three fairy tales: Folks say .., The Poor Woman and the little Canary Bird, and Urbanus, the edition also includes The Pigs from the travel book In Sweden, the whole Picture Book without Pictures, which is often placed among the travel books, and the novel Lucky Peer which may also with all reason be called a fairy tale novel. Normally, Lucky Peer is ranged as a novel.

The list of works translated by Hersholt includes the original 156 printed in Andersens own time plus the fairy tales found in his papes – and published after his death: The Court Cards, Croak!, Danish Popular Legends, God can never die, The Penman, The Talisman, and This Fable is Intended for You“.

Hans Christian Anderson Fairy Tales – Impact on Children’s Literature

An extract from the Oxford Encyclopedia of Children’s Literature, available on Oxford Reference.

Although Andersen considered himself a novelist and playwright, his novels, dramas, and comedies are almost forgotten today, while his unquestionable fame is based on his fairy tales. He published four collections: Eventyr, fortalte for børn (Fairy Tales, Told for Children, 1835–1842), Nye eventyr (New Fairy Tales, 1844–1848), Historier (Stories, 1852–1855), and Nye eventyr og historier (New Fairy Tales and Stories, 1858–1872), which were an immediate, unprecedented success and were translated into many languages during his lifetime. Yet only a handful of his fairy tales and stories are widely read today.

Sources of his stories: from folklore to literature

Although Andersen could have read Grimms’ fairy tales, the sources of his stories were mostly Danish folk tales, collected and retold by his immediate predecessors J. M. Thiele, Adam Oehlenschlæger, and Bernhard Ingemann. Unlike the collectors, whose aim was to preserve and sometimes to classify and study folktales, Andersen was primarily a writer, and his objective was to create new literary works based on folklore, although some of his fairy tales have their origins in ancient poetry (“The Naughty Boy”) or medieval European literature (“The Emperor’s New Clothes”). He also found inspiration in the literary fairy tales by the German Romantics such as Heinrich Hoffmann and Adelbert von Chamisso.

And they didn’t live happily ever after

There are several ways in which Andersen may be said to have created the genre of the modern fairy tale. First, he gave the fairy tale a personal touch. His very first fairy tale, “The Tinder Box,” opens in a matter-of-fact way instead of the traditional “Once upon a time,” and its characters, including the king, speak a colloquial, everyday language. This feature became the trademark of Andersen’s style. Quite a number of his early fairy tales are retellings of traditional folktales such as “Little Claus and Big Claus,” “The Princess on the Pea,” “The Traveling Companion,” “The Swineherd,” and “The Wild Swans”; in Andersen’s rendering, however, they reveal a certain uniqueness and brilliant irony. Kings go around in battered slippers and personally open the gates of their kingdoms; princesses read newspapers and roast chicken; and many supernatural creatures in later tales behave and talk like ordinary people. An explicit narrative voice, commenting on the events and addressing the listener, is another characteristic trait of Andersen’s tales. However, there are no conventional morals in the tales, possibly with the exception of “The Red Shoes” or “The Girl Who Trod on a Loaf.” By contrast, many of them persistently explore the theme of true and false art, as in “The Swineherd” and, more subtly, in “The Nightingale.” The motif of physical and spiritual suffering, for instance in “The Wild Swans,” is accentuated in a manner uncommon in folk tales. Most of Andersen’s fairy tales are radically unlike traditional folk tales as they lack happy endings, the token of true folk tales. The little match girl freezes to death, the little tin soldier is thrown into the oven and melts, the daisy withers, and the fir tree is chopped into firewood.

Recurring themes

In addition, Andersen brought the fairy tale into the everyday. His first original fairy tale, “Little Ida’s Flowers,” reminds one of E. T. A. Hoffmann’s tales in its elaborate combination of the ordinary and the fantastic, its nocturnal magical transformations, and its use of the child as a narrative lens. Still closer to Hoffmann is “The Steadfast Tin Soldier,” with its animation of the realm of toys. However, in both tales, Andersen’s melancholy view of life is revealed: both end tragically, thus questioning the essence of children’s literature as depending on happy endings. These may be counterbalanced by more conventional stories of trials and reward such as “Thumbelina” or “The Snow Queen,” the latter based on a popular Norse legend of the Ice Maiden and featuring the invincible power of love, a recurrent theme in Andersen’s works, perhaps reflecting his own wishful thinking. The origins of the title figure in “Ole Lukkøje” (translated into English as Willie Winkie, The Sandman, The Dustman, Old Luke; the title means literally “Ole, close your eyes,” Ole being a boy’s name), harks back to the German folklore character Sandmännchen, a little man or dwarf, who makes children go to sleep. He may be viewed as one of Andersen’s many self-portraits as a skilful storyteller.

In a group of fairy tales, Andersen went still further in animating the material world around him and introducing everyday objects as protagonists: “The Sweethearts” (also known as “The Top and the Ball”), “The Shepherdess and the Chimney Sweep,” “The Collar,” “The Silver Penny,” and “The Darning-needle.” He is credited as a pioneer in this respect. Even flowers and plants are ascribed a rich spiritual and emotional life: “The Daisy,” “The Fir Tree,” and “Five Peas from One Pod.”

Satirical sketches

Andersen’s animal tales are also radically different from traditional fables. While in “The Storks” he presents an original interpretation of the popular saying that babies are brought by storks, Andersen uses animals to represent different opinions on life in several stories, such as “The Happy Family,” “The Sprinters,” and “The Dung-Beetle.” The stories themselves are closer to satirical sketches of human manners than fairy tales for children. “The Ugly Duckling,” probably Andersen’s best-known story, is one of his many camouflaged autobiographies, echoing the writer’s much- quoted statement:

“First you must endure a lot, then you get famous.”

The animals, including the protagonist, possess human traits, views, and emotions, making the story indeed a poignant account of the road from humiliation through suffering to well-deserved bliss. The message is, however, ambivalent. The fairy tale is usually interpreted as a conventional Cinderella plot: after many hardships, patience and perseverance will be rewarded. On closer examination, the ugly duckling turns into a beautiful swan only because he was hatched from a swan’s egg. Some scholars believe that Andersen was the illegitimate child of a nobleman, perhaps even the king of Denmark (or alternatively, secretly believed himself to be). Perhaps “The Ugly Duckling” is the author’s way of saying:

“I have achieved fame and wealth only because I am in fact of noble birth.”

Andersen’s impact on children’s literature cannot be overestimated. His fairy tales are translated into dozens of languages, often in a horrendously corrupted and oversimplified manner, and his most famous characters, such as the Little Mermaid, the Little Match Girl, and the Ugly Duckling, are known all over the world. The fairy tales have been made into picture books, plays, films, operas, and merchandise, and Andersen’s life has become the subject for theater and film. Many children’s writers have acknowledged their debt to Andersen as model and inspiration. The significance of Andersen may be illustrated by the fact that the world’s most prestigious prize in children’s literature, the Hans Christian Andersen Medal, is named after him, and that his birthday, 2 April, is celebrated as International Children’s Book Day.

The opinions and other information contained in OxfordWords blog posts and comments do not necessarily reflect the opinions or positions of Oxford University Press.

 

Oskar Klever – Biography

Oskar Klever (1887 – 1975) belonged to an old artistic family, actually of Baltic origin, but since Catherine II’s days, the family had been active in St. Petersburg (Leningrad). Oskar Klever’s father, Julij Juljevitch Klever, once was a much acknowledged landscape painter who was appointed professor at the Academy of Fine Arts and ennobled by the Czar. One of Oskar Klever’s uncles, a sister, and a brother were also active painters. Today, the works of the various family members are shown in Russian museums.

The artistic education and evolving painting activity of Oskar Klever took place before the Russian Revolution in 1917. Klever started as a landscape painter, but in time the scene-painting became his favorite form of expression – not least after the revolution which did in many ways change the premises of his artistic work. He painted decorations and drew costumes for several theatres in Leningrad and environs, he worked as a producer, indeed even as an actor.
Also the puppet theatre and amateur theatres profited from his energy.

Ever since his youth, Oskar Klever had been absorbed by Hans Christian Andersen’s fairy tales and stories. In fact, it was an Andersen picture that effected his entrance to the St. Petersburg Academy of Fine Arts. In the course of time, he created a collection of some 50 paintings, all in watercolour.
During the World War II, when Germans put him into prisoner’s camp, one can only wonder how he managed to procure paper, colours and brushes. He indeed knew Andersen’s texts by heart, and along with the painting he was telling fairy tales to the children in the camp.

Oskar Klever’s paintings which have been created within a great span of years – 1915-64 – are illustrations of 28 of Andersen’s fairy tales and stories. It is significant that the artist has disregarded several of the most famous and most often translated and illustrated fairy tales, whereas several of the less known works from Andersen’s late years, the 1850’ies and the 1860’ies, has especially claimed his attention and inspired him in his painting.

Klever transferred his works to The Hans Christian Andersen Museum in 1968. The 46 illustrations were published for the very first time in bookform in H.C. Andersen. Eventyr. Illustrationer af Oskar Klever (‘Hans Christian Andersen. Fairy Tales. Illustrations by Oskar Klever’), with a foreword by Johan de Mylius, Gyldendal, Copenhagen 1991.

 

Hans Christian Anderson Fairy Tales – Introduction

Hans Christian Andersen was a Danish author best known for writing children’s stories including “The Little Mermaid” and “The Ugly Duckling.”

Synopsis

Hans Christian Andersen was born in Odense, Denmark, on April 2, 1805. Andersen achieved worldwide fame for writing innovative and influential fairy tales. Many of his stories, including “The Ugly Duckling” and “The Princess and the Pea,” remain classics of the genre. He died in Copenhagen on August 4, 1875.

Early Life

Hans Christian Andersen was born on April 2, 1805, in Odense, Denmark. Hans Andersen Sr. died in 1816, leaving his son and a wife, Anne Marie. While the Andersen family was not wealthy, young Hans Christian was educated in boarding schools for the privileged. The circumstances of Andersen’s education have fueled speculation that he was an illegitimate member of the Danish royal family. These rumors have never been substantiated.In 1819, Andersen traveled to Copenhagen to work as an actor. He returned to school after a short time, supported by a patron named Jonas Collin. He began writing during this period, at Collin’s urging, but was discouraged from continuing by his teachers.

Writing Career

Andersen’s work first gained recognition in 1829, with the publication of a short story entitled “A Journey on Foot from Holmen’s Canal to the East Point of Amager.” He followed this with the publication of a play, a book of poetry and a travelogue. The promising young author won a grant from the king, allowing him to travel across Europe and further develop his body of work. A novel based on his time in Italy, The Improvisatore, was published in 1835. The same year, Andersen began producing fairy tales.

Despite his success as a writer up to this point, Andersen did not initially attract attention for his writing for children. His next novels, O.T. and Only a Fiddler, remained critical favorites. Over the following decades, he continued to write for both children and adults, penning several autobiographies, travel narratives and poetry extolling the virtues of the Scandinavian people. Meanwhile, critics and consumers overlooked volumes including the now-classic stories “The Little Mermaid” and “The Emperor’s New Clothes.” In 1845, English translations of Andersen’s folktales and stories began to gain the attention of foreign audiences. Andersen forged a friendship with acclaimed British novelist Charles Dickens, whom he visited in England in 1847 and again a decade later. His stories became English-language classics and had a strong influence on subsequent British children’s authors, including A.A. Milne and Beatrix Potter. Over time, Scandinavian audiences discovered Andersen’s stories, as did audiences in the United States, Asia and across the globe. In 2006, an amusement park based on his work opened in Shanghai. His stories have been adapted for stage and screen, including a popular animated version of “The Little Mermaid.”